The Campaigns of 1758.

With the newly launched Italian expedition going badly, Spain was could ill afford to still be at war with Britain. Were the Royal Navy to reappear in the Mediterranean in strength then Spanish communications with their beach-head in Tuscany would likely be severed.
After the Treaty of Vienna, the Austrians were no longer a presence blocking Spanish ambitions in Italy, but they had been replaced by the Russians, and the Empress Elizabeth, unlike Maria Theresa didn't have an ongoing war with Prussia to distract her. In addition to this problem, the Spanish possessions in the new world looked increasingly vulnerable to the Anglo-Dutch alliance. Thus, early in 1758 Spanish diplomats began making overtures in London regarding a separate peace with Britain. The British, dismayed at the recent turn of events in India, were receptive, and on February 28th 1758 the Treaty of Greenwich brought hostilities between Britain and Spain to a close. Spain agreed to return Minorca to the British, …

The efforts of France to utilize local allies to capture Madras from the British in 1756 had come to naught in part due to a lack of modern, European artillery and engineers. These had arrived at the French colony of Pondicherry in July 1756 aboard the fleet of the Duc de Bergereau, but had not been ready to move north to Madras by the end of that year's campaigning season. When the bulk of the sepoys besieging Madras disbanded towards the end of 1756, it looked like the French effort to drive out their British rivals was at an end for the foreseeable future. However, French diplomacy on the subcontinent continued to be highly proficient, and in the summer of 1757 native armies returned to follow the fleurs des lys in a renewed offensive.
The bulk of these troops were sent against the British possessions in Bengal. The rest attacked Madras from the direction of Mysore supported by the French army that…

Being as rich as it was, Lombardy was well fortified, and the invading Spanish had to detach half of their force to screen border fortresses, and secure the passes over the mountains.
This was the first sign that there might be hope for Zinnsburger to mount a successful defense. The second, was the outstanding job done by his light cavalry in keeping track of the invaders' movements, and screening his own. It was this traditionally fine Austrian work in "der kleine kreig" that enabled him to bring Panos to battle at Gabbiadano on October 20th.
Gabbiadano was a small, solid village surrounded by walled fields and orchards, and standing in the shadow of Monte Bartoli, a tall, pine-covered hill that dominated the surrounding plain.
To the Southwest of Gabbiadano lay another, similar village, Rosucci. Zinnsburger filled the woods atop Monte Bartoli with Grenzers, deployed his infantry, around Gabbiadano, and his cavalry, divided …

The Campaigns of 1757.

Spring: The 1756 campaigning season had been a highly successful for one for Elizabeth, Empress of all the Russians, but over the subsequent Winter the limitations on any further expansion of her realm started to become clear. Money, or more specifically lack thereof, was going to be a problem as war dragged on. Elizabeth ruled an empire that was vast, but relatively poor, and the two new territories added to it in 1756 were, other than the longed-for warm water ports provided by the conquest of the Crimea, similarly lacking in resources. Two small-scale campaigns, both against minor opponents, and the subsequent crash ship-building program launched in the Baltic as soon as the Crimea had fallen into Russian hands had largely emptied Elizabeth’s treasury. However, the Empress was not completely without resources at her disposal. Russia’s revenues might be be meager, but its reserves of manpower were vast. What was needed, it soon became apparent to the Tsarina, was an ally with the oppos…


The Spanish buildup in the Caribbean continued into the Fall. An army of Provincials was formed in Cuba in September, and by October General Alvarez's Army was well on its way to further reinforce that island.
Off the Windward Islands the Spanish fleet carrying Alvarez and his men rendezvoused with La Galissionnere's French Caribbean Fleet. Mindful of the presence of Admiral Hawke's squadrons at Jamaica, the Bourbon plan was for the French warships to escort the Spanish for the final leg of their journey. This would have been a much easier undertaking had Hawke not been reinforced over the Summer, and the British admiral's strength now greatly exceeded that of his opponent.
Hawke put to sea on October 8th and began sweeping the eastern Caribbean in search of both La Galissionnere, and the Spanish troop convoy reportedly on the way.
Less than two weeks later, on the morning of October 20th he was rewarded by the sight of sails approaching from the east. With the wind at…

Tying Up Loose Ends.

General Apraxin, conqueror of the Crimea, dispersed his army into Winter quarters in September then rode North for St. Petersburg. Arriving there towards the end of the month, he was first bestowed by the Empress Elizabeth the title Prince of Odessa, and then further rewarded with a new command.
Apraxin was to take the forces based around the capital, and, in conjunction with the Russian Baltic Fleet, attempt to seize Finland from the Swedes.
The staunchly protestant Swedes were not all comfortable with being part of an alliance with Europe's three great catholic powers. Rumors of Jesuit plots had been swirling around the court in Stockholm all Summer, and in September they had resulted in all Swedish field forces in Finland being withdrawn back across the Baltic into Sweden proper.
Apraxin seized the opportunity thus presented, and marched directly on the great fortress of Vyborg, the gateway to Finland. With Winter approaching there was no time to assemble the supplies for a pro…

THE BATTLE OF GOLLERWITZ - 18th SEPTEMBER 1756. Part 2: Battle and Aftermath

Having served extensively in Silesia in the War of Austrian Succession, and having been quartered there with his army since the outbreak of the new round of hostilities, Schwerin was intimately familiar with the ground on which he expected to have to fight.
The Gollerwitz area had been chosen because there the roads leading to Breslau passed though something of a natural defile, a feature that would limit Browne's ability to use superior numbers to affect an envelopment. However, even with this advantage the Prussian Field Marshal simply lacked the men to hold a solid front across the two miles between the Gollerbach, and Schnabach rivers, and still leave himself with any kind of reserve. As a result, rather than deploy there, directly across Browne's path, Schwerin instead arrayed his infantry along the left bank of the Gollerbach, their left, under Hulsen, anchored upon the town itself. Any frontal attempt on this position, would force the attackers to struggle across the s…